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The teaching of astronomy in our colleges and high schools often sidesteps the contributions of
cultures outside of Europe and the U.S. white mainstream. Few educators (formal or informal) receive
much training in this area, and they therefore tend to stick to people and histories they know from their
own training — even when an increasing number of their students or audiences might be from cultures
beyond those familiar to them. Luckily, a wealth of material is becoming available to help celebrate the
ideas and contributions of non-European cultures regarding our views of the universe.
This listing of resources about cultures and astronomy makes no claim to be comprehensive, but
simply consists of some English-language materials that can be used both by educators and their students
or audiences. This document includes published and web-based materials, plus videos and classroom activities. In this edition, we have made a particular effort to enlarge resources about African-American and Hispanic
Table of Contents:
1. General Resources on the Astronomy of Diverse Cultures
2. Astronomy of African-American Cultures
3. Astronomy of Hispanic-American Cultures
4. Astronomy of Native North American Cultures
5. Astronomy of African Cultures
6. Astronomy of Islamic Cultures
7. Astronomy of Central and South American Cultures
8. Astronomy of Hawaiian, Polynesian, and Native Australian Cultures
9. Astronomy of Asian Cultures
Appendix A. Reports and Articles on Achieving Greater Diversity in Science
Appendix B. Astronomy of Ancient European Cultures
Effect of Varying Ramp Angle and Leading-Edge Bluntness on the Behavior of Ramp Induced Shock Wave over Triple Ramped Cone Flare Configuration at Hypersonic Speed
Abstract: Numerical simulation results are presented to show the effect of ramp angle variations and leading-edge
bluntness on the flow around triple ramped cone flare in hypersonic flow. This study investigates the changes associated with shock wave boundary layer interaction due to ramp induced flow breakdown and the fluctuation in flow in the presence of blunted leading edge. This type of ramp junctions typically features in re-entry vehicles, engine intakes, system and subsystem junctions, control surfaces, etc. Ramp junctions usually are associated with strong separation bubble that has significant upstream influence impacting the effectiveness of aerodynamic surfaces, engine performance, thermal behavior and stability.
Computation studies are carried out using finite volume-based RANS solver, accuracy of second order and considering compressible laminar flow characteristics, with solver settings provided similar to experimental conditions as per literature. Comprehensive double ramp studies with suggestions on reducing the separation bubble size are invariantly considered in literature, however there has been no study in understanding the
inclusion of additional ramps in such flow scenarios, hence efforts are taken to understand the benefits and implications of including a third ramp along with varying bluntness on the bubble size and its upstream intensity.
Keywords: Hypersonic, Leading edge bluntness, ramp angle, Shock wave and boundary layer interactions
International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering; Volume-8 Issue-3, September 2019, Page No: 8127-8138, ISSN: 2277-3878; Karthik Sundarraj, Ugur Guven, P.S. Kulkarni, Om Prakash, Ganesh Pawar R.; https://www.ijrte.org/wp-content/uploads/papers/v8i3/C5844098319.pdf
A satellite is expected to move in the orbit until its life is over. This would have been true if the earth was
a true sphere and gravity was the only force acting on the satellite. However, a satellite is deviated from its normal path due to several forces. This deviation is termed as orbital perturbation. The perturbation can be generated due to many known and unknown sources such as Sun and Moon, Solar pressure, etc. This paper discusses the study of perturbation of a Low Earth satellite orbit due to the presence of aerodynamic drag. Numerical method (Runge – Kutta fourth order) is used to solve the Cowell’s equation of perturbation, which consists of ordinary differential equation.
“Experimental Analysis of Low Earth Orbit Satellites due to Atmospheric Perturbations”, IAETSD Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences, Volume 5, Issue 4, April,2018, Raja M, Dr Ugur Guven, Dr OM Prakash,et al. http://iaetsdjaras.org/gallery/24-april-658.pdf, DOI:16.10089.JARAS.2018.V5I4.453459.2517